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Raymonde Moulin | Alain Quemin
Annals Year 1993 48-6 pp. 1421-1445
Part of a thematic issue: Worlds of art

Today we are witnessing the proliferation of expertise and recourse to experts has become a fashion phenomenon which does not spare artistic policy. The competence of the professional culminates in expertise and if all experts are not professionals in the sense that the word has in Anglo-Saxon sociology, they generally aspire to become so. Political and administrative officials, for their part, have become accustomed to appealing to the objectification capacity of experts. The commission of experts thus appears as the updated version of the very general and very old consultation process of the republican administration, both protection and alibi. As art has become, after rationalization, a specialized activity, it is hardly surprising that the model of recourse to experts has become widespread to the point of dominating cultural institutions and the market.
The examination of the mechanisms of construction of the value of art shows that if the interactions between the experts and the economic actors are not absent from the revaluation and devaluation operations relating to the past, they are even more evident in the conflicting uncertainty of the assessments. aesthetics focused on immediately contemporary art. To minimize the risk of choice, political leaders in the artistic field as in other fields, surround themselves with experts by handing over the competence of specialists. Expertise thus becomes one of the major mechanisms for constructing the value of art. It is not forbidden to question, finally on the certification of experts authenticating the value of art and on the criteria to which they refer to build the certification of the value of art and the reputation of artists. Artistic markets, and especially the contemporary art market, are contexts in which uncertainty dominates, uncertainty about the value of goods; on the value of the skills required to achieve professional success, whether it is experts or artists. The term expertise has multiple meanings of which we are far from having exhausted the list. Limiting our analysis to the definition of expertise in French usage, we noted the delayed effect of professionalization on activities related to art, on the one hand; the increased role of expertise in the dual form of attribution and validation in building the value of art, on the other hand. The certification of value conditions the price even if, because values ​​constitute an articulation of the artistic field and the market, the price can be one of the criteria for the certification of value.

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When artists sell their work, they must provide a Certificate of Authenticityin order to be more professional and give all the guarantees to the buyer. A Certificate of Authenticity is essential for the attribution of a work.

Without a Certificate of Authenticity, it's impossible to determine the artwork's origin or to attribute it to an artist. The only value it has will depend on its size, the technique, the materials, and the subject represented.

A Certificate of Authenticity is the key to the successful sale of your works. You must provide a Certificate of Authenticity to the buyer (even if he or she does not ask for one) along with the invoice.

Without a Certificate of Authenticity, most doors will remain closed; no estimate, no transaction. A Certificate of Authenticity is mandatory to establish that a work of art is authentic and has been created by the Artist.

No mention in a raisonné catalog about the financial value of the artwork. Without a Certificate of Authenticity, it's impossible to evaluate the artwork, its only value depends on its size, its technique, the materials used and the subject represented.

What is a Certificate of Authenticity?

A Certificate of Authenticity is a document that is used to attribute a painting, sculpture or photograph to an artist. Important: an invoice cannot serve as a Certificate of Authenticity.

What is the value of a Certificate of Authenticity?

The value of a Certificate of Authenticity depends on the authority of the person writing it, if he or she is recognized by all professionals as the most competent for this subject or artist at the time the certificate is written.

What is the purpose of a Certificate of Authenticity?

Requesting and getting a Certificate of Authenticity allows collectors to:

1. Establish the identity and authenticity of the artwork of art
2. Keep a record of the origin of the acquired artwork
3. Quickly assess its value over time, especially if the artist is or becomes popular
4. To guarantee the authenticity and value of the artwork when it is resold

Providing a Certificate of Authenticity allows artists to:

5. Ensure the authenticity of their creation
6. Facilitate the future of the artwork and its identification
7. Offer a valuable service to your buyers
8. Build credibility within your community

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Artcertificate allows artists and professionals to create and register certificates of authenticity which will then be included in the Blockchain on the Ethereum network. A specific option allows the transfer of any certificate to the Blockchain with one click.

What is: Artcertificate Blockchain?

It's a fully managed Blockchain registration service that facilitates the creation and management of a scalable network of blockchain and distributed registry technologies used for COA Certificates of Authenticity. All COA's can be registered on the blockchain with one click and get a certificate of authenticity on Artcertificate's Blockchain (COABC).

Decentralized management:
A blockchain allows Artcertificate to create COA certificate of authenticity records where different members of the network can check the authenticity of the records without the need for a reliable central authority (Control is done outside of Artcertificate). Each party, known as a member, has a peer node in the network.

Artcertificate Blockchain uses a reputable block chain framework.

Ethereum is perfect for highly distributed block chain networks, where the transparency of data from all members is important and allows all participants in the network to independently verify the activity of every member. Ethereum also allows us to join a public Ethereum block chain network.

The register is decentralized and managed by an Ethereum blockchain that is shared among the members. The control of the registrations is independent from Artcertificate. The registration of the COA is made following the specific request of the applicant.

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